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Shared Responsibility in International Law

SHARES (2010-2015)

The Project produced output, offering new concepts, principles and perspectives for understanding how the international legal order may deal with shared responsibility. SHARES was funded by a European Research Council Advanced Grant of 2.1 million euro, obtained in 2010 by Professor André Nollkaemper. The Project ran until the end of 2015.


  • André Nollkaemper
  • Jean d’Aspremont
  • Maarten den Heijer
  • Dov Jacobs
  • Ilias Plakokefalos
  • Christiane Ahlborn
  • Kristen Boon
  • Bérénice Boutin
  • Kathryn Greenman
  • Nienke van der Have
  • Gleider Hernández
  • Emma Irving
  • Erik Kok
  • Francesco Messineo
  • Nataša Nedeski
  • Isabelle Swerissen
  • Jessica Schechinger
  • Annemarieke Vermeer-Künzli

Selected Output

For a longer list of the project output, see:


Close to a hundred blogs were written as part of the project, which are available on the following website:


  • Nollkaemper, A., d’ Aspremont, J., Ahlborn, C., Boutin, B., Nedeski, N., Plakokefalos, I., & Jacobs, D. (2020). Guiding Principles on Shared Responsibility in International Law. European Journal of International Law, 31(1), 15-72.
  • Nollkaemper, A. (2018). The duality of shared responsibility. Contemporary Politics, 24(5), 524-544.
  • Plakokefalos, I. (2015). Causation in the Law of State Responsibility and the Problem of Overdetermination: In Search of Clarity. European Journal of International Law, 26(2), 471-492.
  • D’ Aspremont, J., Nollkaemper, A., Plakokefalos, I., & Ryngaert, C. (2015). Sharing Responsibility Between Non-State Actors and States in International Law: Introduction. Netherlands International Law Review, 62, 49-67.
  • Nollkaemper, A., & Jacobs, D. (2013). Shared Responsibility in International Law: A Conceptual Framework. Michigan Journal of International Law, 34(2), 359-438.
  • Nollkaemper, A. (2012). International Adjudication of Global Public Goods: The Intersection of Substance and Procedure. European Journal of International Law, 23(3), 769-791.


  • Nedeski, N. Shared Obligations in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022.
  • Nollkaemper, A. & Plakokefalos, I. (Eds.), Principles of shared responsibility in international law: an appraisal of the state of the art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Nollkaemper, A. & Jacobs, D. (Eds.), Distribution of responsibilities in international law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Nollkaemper, A. & Plakokefalos, I. (Eds.), The Practice of Shared Responsibility in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.