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Smuggling in international law

Several pieces of academic research have examined the Protocol in terms of its human rights impact and some have looked at the historical development of this Protocol, which began at the UN level in the early 1990s.  The Protocol however comes at the end of a century of international action against the smuggling of goods, with several treaties seeking to prevent the illicit movement of goods across national borders in a range of areas, from wildlife, to cultural heritage, drugs and weapons. The links between these treaties have been underexplored and are the focus of this PhD project, which aims to understand the extent to which the 2000 Migrant Smuggling Protocol is a part of international law on smuggling and the human rights implications of this for those involved in the smuggling process.



Since 2017